Original Contribution|Articles in Press

A Multimodal Phantom for Visualization and Assessment of Histotripsy Treatments on Ultrasound and X-Ray Imaging


      Histotripsy is an emerging non-invasive, non-ionizing and non-thermal focal tumor therapy. Although histotripsy targeting is currently based on ultrasound (US), other imaging modalities such as cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) have recently been proposed to enable the treatment of tumors not visible on ultrasound. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a multi-modality phantom to facilitate the assessment of histotripsy treatment zones on both US and CBCT imaging.


      Fifteen red blood cell phantoms composed of alternating layers with and without barium were manufactured. Spherical 25-mm histotripsy treatments were performed, and treatment zone size and location were measured on CBCT and ultrasound. Sound speed, impedance and attenuation were measured for each layer type.


      The average ± standard deviation signed difference between measured treatment diameters was 0.29 ± 1.25 mm. The Euclidean distance between measured treatment centers was 1.68 ± 0.63 mm. The sound speed in the different layers ranged from 1491 to 1514 m/s and was within typically reported soft tissue ranges (1480–1560 m/s). In all phantoms, histotripsy resulted in sharply delineated treatment zones, allowing segmentation in both modalities.


      These phantoms will aid in the development and validation of X-ray-based histotripsy targeting techniques, which promise to expand the scope of treatable lesions beyond only those visible on ultrasound.


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