Hamstring Muscle Quality Properties Using Texture Analysis of Ultrasound Images

  • Chrysostomos Sahinis
    Address correspondence to: Chrysostomos Sahinis, Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, TEFAA Serres, Serres 62100, Greece.
    Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece
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  • Eleftherios Kellis
    Laboratory of Neuromechanics, Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences at Serres, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Serres, Greece
    Search for articles by this author


      The aim of this study was to examine the intra- and inter-muscular differences of the hamstring muscles using textural analysis of ultrasound (US) images, and the relationship between textural indicators with hamstring torque. Transverse US scans were obtained from 10 young males from four different measurement sites along the thigh of each individual hamstring muscle at rest. Maximum-knee-flexion isometric torque measurements were also obtained. Texture analysis was applied to US images, and five gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features were quantified: entropy (ENT), angular second moment (ASM), inverse difference moment (IDM), contrast (CON) and correlation (COR). The intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.77 to 0.99, and the standard error of measurement ranged from 0.06 to 10.05%, indicating high test–retest reliability. Analysis of the variance indicated significant differences between measurement sites and individual muscles, with the proximal measurement sites having greater values for ASM, IDM and COR and lower values for ENT and CON compared with the distal sites. Additionally, only the COR at the proximal measurement site exhibited a significant relationship (r = –0.66) with strength. The present study indicated significant differences among hamstrings and measurement locations with respect to the textural analysis and may provide a novel indicator of hamstring functional properties.

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