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Microbubble-Assisted Ultrasound for Imaging and Therapy of Melanoma Skin Cancer: A Systematic Review

      Abstract

      Recent technological developments in ultrasound (US) imaging and ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) have improved diagnostic confidence in echography. In the clinical management of melanoma, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging complements conventional US imaging (i.e., high-resolution US and Doppler imaging) for clinical examination and therapeutic follow-up. These developments have set into motion the combined use of ultrasound and UCAs as a new modality for drug delivery. This modality, called sonoporation, has emerged as a non-invasive, targeted and safe method for the delivery of therapeutic drugs into melanoma. This review focuses on the results and prospects of using US and UCAs as dual modalities for CEUS imaging and melanoma treatment.

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