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Comparison of Electrical and Ultrasound Neurostimulation in Rat Motor Cortex

      Abstract

      Ultrasound (US) is known to non-invasively stimulate and modulate brain function; however, the mechanism of action is poorly understood. This study tested US stimulation of rat motor cortex (100 W/cm2, 200 kHz) in combination with epidural cortical stimulation. US directly evoked hindlimb movement. This response occurred even with short US bursts (3 ms) and had short latency (10 ms) and long refractory (3 s) periods. Unexpectedly, the epidural cortical stimulation hindlimb response was not altered during the 3-s refractory period of the US hindlimb response. This finding suggests that the US refractory period is not a general suppression of motor cortex, but rather the recovery time of a US-specific mechanism.

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