Advertisement

Contrast Enhanced Echocardiographic Follow-up of Cardiac Remodeling and Function after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

      Abstract

      Echocardiography is a reliable and commonly used method to examine cardiac diseases. Recent employment of modern technologies provides new opportunities to study left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) also in small rodents. LV volumes as most important prognostic parameters can be estimated by noncontrast enhanced echocardiography in rats from M-mode or single cross sections only. In this study, contrast enhanced echocardiography and volume measurements by the biplane method of discs (Simpson’s rule) were applied in rats to monitor remodeling and function after MI. MI was induced in female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 26 for MI, and n = 16 for sham). LV remodeling and heart function were serially studied by contrast enhanced echocardiography for 12 to 16 wk. At the end of the observation periods hemodynamic data were additionally measured by left and right heart catheterization. LV end systolic volume (LVESV) measured by biplane method of discs correlated best with LV developed pressure as indicator for severely impaired heart function. Interestingly, LV end systolic area (LVESA) from native short axis view correlated well with LVESV (R2 = 0.93) and was the second best predictor for depressed heart function. Moreover, left atrial size was a powerful indicator of severely impaired heart function whereas ejection fraction or fractional area change were primarily related to infarct size. In conclusion, contrast enhanced echocardiography in rats is feasible and an economical method to study time-dependent LV remodeling and deterioration of contractile function after MI. (E-mail: [email protected])

      Key Words

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Bekeredjian R.
        • Chen S.
        • Pan W.
        • Grayburn P.A.
        • Shohet R.V.
        Effects of ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction on cardiac gene expression.
        Ultrasound Med Biol. 2004; 30: 539-543
        • Bjornerheim R.
        • Kiil Grogaard H.
        • Kjekshus H.
        • Attramadal H.
        • Smiseth O.A.
        High frame rate Doppler echocardiography in the rat: An evaluation of the method.
        Eur J Echocardiogr. 2001; 2: 78-87
        • Bland J.M.
        • Altman D.G.
        Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.
        Lancet. 1986; 1: 307-310
        • Coatney R.W.
        Ultrasound imaging: Principles and applications in rodent research.
        ILAR J. 2001; 42: 233-247
        • Cohen J.L.
        • Cheirif J.
        • Segar D.S.
        • Gillam L.D.
        • Gottdiener J.S.
        • Hausnerova E.
        • Bruns D.E.
        Improved left ventricular endocardial border delineation and opacification with OPTISON (FS069), a new echocardiographic contrast agent: Results of a phase III multicenter trial.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 32: 746-752
        • Denvir M.A.
        • Sharif I.
        • Anderson T.
        • Webb D.J.
        • Gray G.A.
        • McDicken W.N.
        Influence of scanning frequency and ultrasonic contrast agent on reproducibility of left ventricular measurements in the mouse.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005; 18: 155-162
        • Deten A.
        • Volz H.C.
        • Briest W.
        • Zimmer H.G.
        Cardiac cytokine expression is upregulated in the acute phase after myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Res. 2002; 55: 329-340
        • Deten A.
        • Marx G.
        • Briest W.
        • Volz H.C.
        • Zimmer H.G.
        Heart function and molecular biological parameters are comparable in young adult and aged rats after chronic myocardial infarction.
        Cardiovasc Res. 2005; 66: 364-373
        • Francis J.
        • Weiss R.M.
        • Wei S.G.
        • Johnson A.K.
        • Felder R.B.
        Progression of heart failure after myocardial infarction in the rat.
        Am J Physiol. 2001; 281: R1734-R1745
        • Gottdiener J.S.
        • Bednarz J.
        • Devereux R.
        • Gardin J.
        • Klein A.
        • Manning W.J.
        • Morehead A.
        • Kitzman D.
        • Oh J.
        • Quinones M.
        • Schiller N.B.
        • Stein J.H.
        • Weissman N.J.
        American Society of Echocardiography recommendations for use of echocardiography in clinical trials.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2004; 17: 1086-1119
        • Hoffmann R.
        • von Bardeleben S.
        • ten Cate F.
        • Borges A.C.
        • Kasprzak J.
        • Firschke C.
        • Lafitte S.
        • Al-Saadi N.
        • Kuntz-Hehner S.
        • Engelhardt M.
        • Becher H.
        • Vanoverschelde J.L.
        Assessment of systolic left ventricular function: A multi-centre comparison of cineventriculography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, unenhanced and contrast-enhanced echocardiography.
        Eur Heart J. 2005; 26: 607-616
        • Lang R.M.
        • Bierig M.
        • Devereux R.B.
        • Flachskampf F.A.
        • Foster E.
        • Pellikka P.A.
        • Picard M.H.
        • Roman M.J.
        • Seward J.
        • Shanewise J.S.
        • Solomon S.D.
        • Spencer K.T.
        • Sutton M.S.
        • Stewart W.J.
        Recommendations for chamber quantification: A report from the American Society of Echocardiography’s Guidelines and Standards Committee and the Chamber Quantification Writing Group, developed in conjunction with the European Association of Echocardiography, a branch of the European Society of Cardiology.
        J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2005; 18: 1440-1463
        • Lang R.M.
        • Bierig M.
        • Devereux R.B.
        • Flachskampf F.A.
        • Foster E.
        • Pellikka P.A.
        • Picard M.H.
        • Roman M.J.
        • Seward J.
        • Shanewise J.
        • Solomon S.
        • Spencer K.T.
        • St John Sutton M.
        • Stewart W.
        Recommendations for chamber quantification.
        Eur J Echocardiogr. 2006; 7: 79-108
        • Lester S.J.
        • Ryan E.W.
        • Schiller N.B.
        • Foster E.
        Best method in clinical practice and in research studies to determine left atrial size.
        Am J Cardiol. 1999; 84: 829-832
        • Malm S.
        • Frigstad S.
        • Sagberg E.
        • Larsson H.
        • Skjaerpe T.
        Accurate and reproducible measurement of left ventricular volume and ejection fraction by contrast echocardiography: A comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004; 44: 1030-1035
        • Miller D.L.
        • Quddus J.
        Diagnostic ultrasound activation of contrast agent gas bodies induces capillary rupture in mice.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000; 97: 10179-10184
        • Miller D.L.
        • Li P.
        • Gordon D.
        • Armstrong W.F.
        Histological characterization of microlesions induced by myocardial contrast echocardiography.
        Echocardiography. 2005; 22: 25-34
        • Modena M.G.
        • Muia N.
        • Sgura F.A.
        • Molinari R.
        • Castella A.
        • Rossi R.
        Left atrial size is the major predictor of cardiac death and overall clinical outcome in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: A long-term follow-up study.
        Clin Cardiol. 1997; 20: 553-560
        • Otterstad J.E.
        • St. John Sutton M.
        • Froland G.
        • Skjaerpe T.
        • Graving B.
        • Holmes I.
        Are changes in left ventricular volume as measured with the biplane Simpson’s method predominantly related to changes in its area or long axis in the prognostic evaluation of remodeling following a myocardial infarction?.
        Eur J Echocardiogr. 2001; 2: 118-125
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Pfeffer J.M.
        • Fishbein M.C.
        • Fletcher P.J.
        • Spadaro J.
        • Kloner R.A.
        • Braunwald E.
        Myocardial infarct size and ventricular function in rats.
        Circ Res. 1979; 44: 503-512
        • Pfeffer M.A.
        • Braunwald E.
        Ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1990; 81: 1161-1172
        • Sjaastad I.
        • Sejersted O.M.
        • Ilebekk A.
        • Bjornerheim R.
        Echocardiographic criteria for detection of postinfarction congestive heart failure in rats.
        J Appl Physiol. 2000; 89: 1445-1454
        • Slama M.
        • Ahn J.
        • Peltier M.
        • Maizel J.
        • Chemla D.
        • Varagic J.
        • Susic D.
        • Tribouilloy C.
        • Frohlich E.D.
        Validation of echocardiographic and Doppler indices of left ventricular relaxation in adult hypertensive and normotensive rats.
        Am J Physiol. 2005; 289: H1131-H1136
        • Sohn D.W.
        • Chai I.H.
        • Lee D.J.
        • Kim H.C.
        • Kim H.S.
        • Oh B.H.
        • Lee M.M.
        • Park Y.B.
        Assessment of mitral annulus velocity by Doppler tissue imaging in the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function.
        J Am Coll Cardiol. 1997; 30: 474-480
        • Suehiro K.
        • Takuma S.
        • Shimizu J.
        • Hozumi T.
        • Yano H.
        • Cardinale C.
        • DiTullio M.R.
        • Wang J.
        • Smith C.R.
        • Burkhoff D.
        • Homma S.
        Assessment of left ventricular systolic function using contrast two-dimensional echocardiography with a high-frequency transducer in the awake murine model of myocardial infarction.
        Jpn Circ J. 2001; 65: 979-983
        • Taniyama Y.
        • Tachibana K.
        • Hiraoka K.
        • Namba T.
        • Yamasaki K.
        • Hashiya N.
        • Aoki M.
        • Ogihara T.
        • Yasufumi K.
        • Morishita R.
        Local delivery of plasmid DNA into rat carotid artery using ultrasound.
        Circulation. 2002; 105: 1233-1239
        • Udelson J.E.
        • Patten R.D.
        • Konstam M.A.
        New concepts in post-infarction ventricular remodeling.
        Rev Cardiovasc Med. 2003; 4: S3-S12
        • White H.D.
        • Norris R.M.
        • Brown M.A.
        • Brandt P.W.
        • Whitlock R.M.
        • Wild C.J.
        Left ventricular end-systolic volume as the major determinant of survival after recovery from myocardial infarction.
        Circulation. 1987; 76: 44-51
        • Zierhut W.
        • Zimmer H.G.
        Significance of myocardial alpha- and beta-adrenoceptors in catecholamine-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
        Circ Res. 1989; 65: 1417-1425
        • Zimmer H.G.
        • Gerdes A.M.
        • Lortet S.
        • Mall G.
        Changes in heart function and cardiac cell size in rats with chronic myocardial infarction.
        J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1990; 22: 1231-1243