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Biological effects of ultrasound: development of safety guidelines

Part I: personal histories
  • Wesley L Nyborg
    Correspondence
    Address correspondence to: W. L. Nyborg, M.D., University of Vermont, Department of Physics, Cook Physical Science Building, Burlington, VT 05405 USA
    Affiliations
    Physics Department, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA
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      Abstract

      After the end of World War II, advances in ultrasound (US) technology brought improved possibilities for medical applications. The first major efforts in this direction were in the use of US to treat diseases. Medical studies were accompanied by experiments with laboratory animals and other model systems to investigate basic biological questions and to obtain better understanding of mechanisms. Also, improvements were made in methods for measuring and controlling acoustical quantities such as power, intensity and pressure. When diagnostic US became widely used, the scope of biological and physical studies was expanded to include conditions for addressing relevant safety matters. In this historical review, a major part of the story is told by 21 investigators who took part in it. Each was invited to prepare a brief personal account of his/her area(s) of research, emphasizing the “early days,” but including later work, showing how late and early work are related, if possible, and including anecdotal material about mentors, colleagues, etc.

      Keywords

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